Sábado, 14 de Dezembro de 2013

tags

 

 

 

 

 

Com a chegada do Bloco-Notas de José Cutileiro ao Retrovisor, e a pensar nos seus leitores, dediquei umas horas a arrumar a casa, ou seja a criar novas categorias ou etiquetas, as chamadas tags. A primeira crónica — O baú do Kremlin — inaugurou as categorias Alemanha, Rússia e Capitalismo.

 

Acrescentei ColonialismoComunismoCristianismoNazismoTerrorismo 

e Estados Unidos, temas que têm sido abordados neste blog e que faz agora todo o sentido terem tag própria.  

 

Tenho sido económica nas tags porque comecei com categorias o mais latas possível, que permitem agregar material muito diverso e se vão destacando na chamada nuvem de tags (na coluna da direita) à medida que cresce o seu conteúdoMuitos dos escritores citados neste blog estão assim simplesmente agrupados na tag Autores

 

Boa parte do material dos espólios familiares está em ÁlbumÁlbuns, Casas, Recordações.

 

Próximas "gavetas" a arrumar melhor serão Photographia, Fotografia e Snapshot. Na primeira estão guardados os textos de Autor sobre fotografia e as imagens até aos anos 20 do século XX.

 

Para encontrar um nome nos arquivos aconselho pesquisar neste blog, no topo da coluna direita.

 

 

Boa navegação!

 

 

A crónica O baú do Kremlin aqui

 

O Bloco-Notas de José Cutileiro sai à quarta-feira.

 

 

 

publicado por VF às 09:44
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Quinta-feira, 8 de Julho de 2010

The Great Forgetting

 

 

Brussels is not unique. In Berlin, there are no museums or monuments to the slaughtered Hereros, and in Paris and Lisbon no visible reminders of the rubber terror that slashed in half the populations of parts of French and Portuguese Africa. In the American South, there are hundreds of Civil War battle monuments and preserved plantation manor houses for every exhibit that in any way marks the existence of slavery. And yet the world we live in — its divisions and conflicts, its widening gap between rich and poor, its seemingly inexplicable outbursts of violence — is shaped far less by what we celebrate and mythologize than by the painful events we try to forget. Leopold's Congo is but one of those silences of history.

 

The Congo offers a striking example of the politics of forgetting. Leopold and the Belgian colonial officials who followed him went to extraordinary lengths to try to erase potentially incriminating evidence from the historical record. One day in August 1908, shortly before the colony was officially turned over to Belgium, the king's young military aide Gustave Stinglhamber walked from the Royal Palace to see a friend in the Congo state offices next door. The midsummer day seemed particularly warm, and the two men went to an open window to talk. Stinglhamber sat down on a radiator, then jumped to his feet: it was burning hot. When the men summoned the janitor for an explanation, he replied, "Sorry, but they're burning the State archives." The furnaces burned for eight days, turning most of the Congo state records to ash and smoke in the sky over Brussels. "I will give them my Congo," Leopold told Stinglhamber, "but they have no right to know what I did there."

 

 

Adam Hochschild

in King Leopold’s Ghost p. 294

A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa

© Adam Hochschild, 1998

 

 

 

 

em português aqui

 

 

publicado por VF às 11:10
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Segunda-feira, 5 de Julho de 2010

política colonial

 

 

Au Congo Belge

foto E. Lebied / Congopresse

© Royal Museum for Central Africa, Bruxelas

 

 

Há dois anos que venho estudando – com um crescente interesse – os problemas africanos, e em especial os do Congo Belga e de Angola, porque não perdoaria a mim próprio tratá-los perante o Ministério com a leviandade com que outros, anteriormente, o têm feito. Estão-se passando em África coisas muito graves que, num futuro mais ou menos distante, poderão vir a afectar seriamente a nossa posição se não nos prevenirmos desde já contra os seus eventuais efeitos, revendo em diversos sectores a nossa política colonial, não como quase sempre se tem feito mas pela criação de um novo estado de coisas. (Tudo isto naturalmente, dito assim, cheira um pouco a profecias tipo Dr. Rakar. Espero porém que os relatórios que estou terminando deixem impressão diferente).

 

 

Vasco Futscher Pereira

Excerto de carta ao colega e amigo Amândio Pinto, 1954

in Retrovisor, um Álbum de Família

© RCP edições, 2009

 

publicado por VF às 13:02
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Sábado, 3 de Julho de 2010

colonialisme (2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Au moment ou éclate la Seconde Guerre mondiale, le colonialisme est à son apogée. Pourtant le déroulement de cette guerre, son impact symbolique sur la réalité amorcent la déroute et la fin du système colonial.

 

Comment et pourquoi cela s'est-il passé ainsi ? Une brève incursion dans les méandres obscurs d'une pensée raisonnant en catégories raciales explique bien de choses. En effet, le thème central, l'essence, la racine des relations entre les Européens et les Africains, la forme principale que ces rapports prennent à l'époque coloniale, c'est la différence de race, de couleur de peau. Toute relation, tout échange, tout conflit peut être traduit en termes « Blanc-Noir », le Blanc étant, bien sur, supérieur au Noir, meilleur, plus fort que lui. Le Blanc est un monsieur, un maître, un sahib, un bwana kubwa, un seigneur incontesté et un souverain […]

 

Or voilà que soudain les Africains, qui ont été enrôlés dans les armées britannique et française, voient que dans cette guerre à laquelle ils participent en Europe, le Blanc frappe le Blanc, que les Blancs se tirent dessus et se détruisent leurs villes mutuellement. C'est la révélation, la stupéfaction, le choc. Les soldats africains dans l'armée française voient que leur puissance coloniale, la France, est vaincue et battue. Les soldats africains dans l'armée britannique voient que la capitale de l'empire, Londres, est bombardée, ils voient que les Blancs sont pris de panique, que les Blancs fuient, supplient, pleurent. Ils  voient des Blancs déguenillés, affamés, mendiant du pain. Et au fur et à mesure qu'ils progressent vers l'est de l'Europe et qu'ils combattent, aux côtés de Blancs anglais, des Blancs allemands, ils tombent çà et là sur des colonnes de Blancs vêtus d'uniformes rayés, des hommes-squelettes, des hommes-lambeaux.

 

Le choc que subit l'Africain lorsque les images de la guerre des Blancs lui défilent sous les yeux est d'autant plus fort que les habitants de l'Afrique — à de rares exceptions près, et dans le cas du Congo belge sans exception aucune — n'étaient pas autorisés à aller en Europe ni même à sortir du continent. L'Africain ne pouvait juger de la vie des Blancs que d'après les conditions luxueuses dont ces derniers jouissaient dans les colonies.

 

Dernier point: au milieu du XXe siècle, I'habitant de I'Afrique n'est informé que par ce que lui raconte son voisin, le chef de son village ou l'administrateur colonial. Par conséquent, il ne connait du monde que ce qu'il voit dans son environnement proche ou entend lors de conversations le soir au coin du feu.

 

Nous allons bientôt retrouver tous ces combattants africains de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, de retour au pays, dans les rangs de divers mouvements et partis luttant pour l'indépendance. Ces organisations poussent comme des champignons après la pluie. Elles ont diverses orientations, poursuivent des objectifs différents.

 

 

Ryszard Kapuscinski

in Ébène Aventures africaines pp. 32-33

traduit du polonais par Véronique Patte

© Ryszard Kapuscinski,1998/Librairie Plon 2000

 

 

Imagem de soldado africano na Segunda Guerra Mundial:  aqui

 

 

 

publicado por VF às 10:49
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Quarta-feira, 30 de Junho de 2010

há 50 anos

 

 

 

 "TKM Lumumba Indépendance " Peinture de Tshibumba. Ca 1972.

 

 

 

My father and I have patched things up. He allowed me to accompany him to Leopoldville, where we got to see history in the making. We watched the Independence ceremonies from a giant rusty barge tied to the bank of the Congo River that was loaded with so many pushing, squirming people Mrs Underdown said we'd probably all go down like the Titanic. It was such an important event King Baudouin of Belgium, himself, was going to be there. It was childish, I know, but I got very excited when she told me that. I suppose I was picturing someone in a crown and an ermine-trimmed scarlet robe, like Old King Cole. But the white men sitting up on the stage were all dressed alike, in white uniforms with belts, swords, shoulder fringe, and white flat-topped military hats. Not a single crown to be seen. As they waited their turn to speak, dark sweat stains blossomed under the arms of their uniforms. And when it was all over I couldn't even tell you which one had been the King. […] After the King and the other white men spoke, they inaugurated Patrice Lumumba as the new Prime Minister, I could tell exactly which one he was. He was a thin, distinguished man who wore real eyeglasses and a small, pointed beard. When he stood up to speak, everyone's mouth shut. In the sudden quiet we could hear the great Congo River lapping up its banks. Even the birds seemed taken aback. Patrice Lumumba raised his left hand up and seemed to grow ten feet tall, right there and then. His eyes shone bright white with dark centers. His smile was a triangle, upcurved on the sides and reaching a point below, like his beard. I could see his face very clearly, even though we were far away.

'Ladies and gentlemen of the Congo' he said, 'who have fought for the independence won today, I salute you!'

The quiet crowd broke open with cheers and cheers. 'Je vous salue! Je vous salue encore!'

Patrice Lumumba asked us to keep this day, June 30, 1960, in our hearts forever and tell our children of its meaning. Everyone on the raft and the crowded banks would do what he said, I knew. Even me, if I ever get to have any children.

 

 

Barbara Kingsolver

in The Poisonwood Bible (Book II The Revelation – Leah) pp. 206-207

© Barbara Kingsolver, 1998

 

 

 

Aos leitores interessados recomendo vivamente este romance sobre a independência do Congo Belga e as três décadas que se lhe seguiram. A história é narrada a várias vozes, as da mulher e das filhas de Nathan Price, um baptista evangélico que leva a família para o interior do Congo Belga em 1959. A acção estende-se até à Angola dos anos 80. Um livro fascinante, que inclui extensa bibliografia sobre o tema. Em português: A Bíblia Envenenadaaqui.

 

Esta imagem e outras aqui


publicado por VF às 01:01
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Segunda-feira, 28 de Junho de 2010

colonialisme

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Théoriquement, mais théoriquement seulement, le colonialisme règne en Afrique depuis la Conférence de Berlin (1883-1885) au cours de laquelle quelques États européens, essentiellement l'Angleterre et la France, mais aussi la Belgique, l'Allemagne et le Portugal, se sont partagé le continent tout entier, jusqu'à la libération de l'Afrique dans la seconde moitié du XXe siècle. En fait, la pénétration coloniale a commencé bien plus tôt, dès le XVe siècle, et elle n’a cessé de progresser au cours des cinq siècles suivants. La phase la plus honteuse et la plus brutale de cette conquête fut le commerce des esclaves africains, qui dura plus de trois cents ans. Trois cents ans de traques, de rafles, de poursuites et d'embuscades organisées par des Blancs, souvent avec la complicité d'Africains et d'Arabes. Entassés dans des cales de navires, des millions de jeunes Africains ont été déportés dans des conditions cauchemardesques au-delà de l'océan Atlantique afin d'y édifier, à la sueur de leur front, la richesse et le pouvoir du Nouveau Monde.

 

 

Ryszard Kapuscinski

in Ébène Aventures africaines pp. 31-32

traduit du polonais par Véronique Patte

©Ryszard Kapuscinski,1998/Librairie Plon 2000

 

Imagem encontrada aqui

 

 

publicado por VF às 16:03
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Sexta-feira, 25 de Junho de 2010

indépendance!

 

 

 

 

 

Exposições patentes no Musée Royal de L'Afrique Centrale

aqui

 

 

publicado por VF às 11:27
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